There is a tendency in English-language publications to view Apulian red-figure pottery as simply a continuation of Attic red-figure, and this has often obscured important differences between the two. The unfounded assumption that Apulian red-figure vases were made by Greeks for colonial Greeks has diverted attention from the Italic people of Apulia who, in fact, provided the principal markets. Apulian vases are rarely found outside Apulia and it seems likely that many painters knew their markets well and had them specifically in mind when they devised some of the more elaborate mythological scenes. Thus the vases can provide insights into the cultures of the Italic people who obtained them. This article is an attempt to address significant misconceptions about Apulian red-figure and to provide a solid grounding for future studies of this rich and developing field.