Bibliographical References and Notes

Manuscripts end with a list of all works cited, in alphabetical order by last name of first author. The exceptions are Standard Reference Works. Sample citations are provided below. See also Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) 15.5–19.

Notes may consist of discussion only, discussion and bibliographical citation, or bibliographical citation only. Bibliographical citations in notes should appear in chronological order and be drawn from the list of works cited. These citations should consist of the author’s last name, the year of publication, and relevant inclusive pages, sections, figures, plates, etc. Each note should not exceed 200 words. No in-text citations should be used, except for references to primary ancient sources.

Bibliographic references to electronic sources should follow the format for printed sources as closely as possible, with sufficient information provided to allow readers to locate original documents or sources of information. If printed versions of electronic sources exist, references should be made to the most recent and complete version.

Notes with Bibliographical Citations Only

Notes containing no supplementary information should be formatted as follows:

Single-Volume Works Cited

1 Thomas 2005, 536–37.
2 Quatember 2011, pl. 112.
3 Corbier 2006, 29 n. 53.

Multiple-Volume Works Cited

1 Maran 1998, 1:8–9.

Multiple Works Cited

1 Carlisle 1998, 265–87; see also Margreth 1993; Balzer 1996, 164–82.
2 Margreth 1993; Balzar 1996, 164–82; Leigh 1998, 2001.

Multiple References to the Same Work or Author

1 Lancaster 1998, 1999.
2 Davis 2001, 47–106; 2006, 306.
3 Hamilton 2007a, 2007b.
4 Geagan 1995a, 16–20, 42.

Notes with Discussion and Bibliographical Citations

Notes containing secondary discussion in addition to source documentation should be formatted in the author-date style as follows:

1 Hallager (1996, 235) notes that the four “classic” nodule types had not yet appeared in MM II–III.
2 The inscription has been dated by Robert (1966, 108–18; cf. Roueché 1993, 163) to the first century C.E. on the basis of the script.
3 Smith (2006, 25) follows the same line of reasoning as Hall 2001, 56.

Supra and Infra References

When it is necessary to have cross-referenced notes, use “supra” and “infra” (without italics) instead of “above” and “below”:

31 Although no paintings have been reported in Room X (supra n. 22), remains of wall paintings were found on the floor of neighboring Room S (Miller 1996, 54).

The following should not be used: ad loc., ibid, idem, inter alia, loc. cit., op. cit., passim.

AJA Abbreviations

See the list of AJA abbreviations of titles of standard reference works, journals, and book series. Abbreviations of ancient authors and works should follow those listed in OCD3 xxix–liv.

Standard Reference Works

An abbreviated format is used to cite selected standard reference works. These works should be referenced in the notes following the formatting examples below and may be omitted from the list of works cited:

ABV, 255, no. 4 (for J.D. Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters [Oxford 1956], p. 255, item 4)
CIL 1(2) 327  (for Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, vol. 1, pt. 2, inscription no. 327)
IG 22 65, line 23 (for Inscriptiones graecae, vol. 2, second edition, inscription no. 65, line 23)
RE 11:1229, s.v. “Timandra 1” (for A. Pauly and G. Wissowa, Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft [1893–1978], vol. 11, p. 1229, under the word “Timandra 1”)

Journal and Series Titles

Journal or series titles that appear in the AJA Abbreviations should be written in abbreviated form in the list of works cited:

Piérart, M. 2006. “Travaux de l’École française d’Athénes en 2005: Argos. L’agora.” BCH 130:708–13. (BCH = Bulletin de correspondance hellénique)
Buitron-Oliver, D. 1996. The Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion: Excavations in the Archaic Precinct. SIMA 109. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag. (SIMA = Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology)

The corresponding bibliographic citation(s) in the notes should follow the AJA’s standard format. 

Page Numbers

Do not use abbreviations such as f. or ff. for “following page(s)”; inclusive page references, separated by an en-dash, must be cited thus:

  7–14 100–4 523–29
  46–8 112–14 1004–7
  89–112 201–16 1396–430


Inclusive Roman numerals should be given in full:

xxii–xxxviii                    cvi–cix

Sample References to Books

The works cited list entry is given first, followed by the note entry:

One Author

Dyson, S.L. 1985. The Creation of the Roman Frontier. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
1 Dyson 1985, 86.

Two or More Authors

Akkermans, P.M.M.G., and G. Schwartz. 2007. The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1 Akkermans and Schwartz 2007, 255.

Hunter, J., C. Roberts, and A. Martin. 1997. Studies in Crime: An Introduction to Forensic Archaeology. New York: Routledge.
1 Hunter et al. 1997, 46–51.

Editor or Translator as Author

Picón, C.A., ed. 2007. Art of the Classical World in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Greece, Cyprus, Etruria, Rome. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
1 Picón 2007, 409–10.

McIntosh, R.J., J.A. Tainter, and S.K. McIntosh, eds. 2000. The Way the Wind Blows: Climate, History, and Human Action. New York: Columbia University Press.
1 McIntosh et al. 2000.

Sommerstein, A.H., ed. and trans. 1982. Clouds. Comedies of Aristophanes 3. Chicago: Bolchazy-Carducci.
1 Sommerstein 1982, 162 n. 52.

Editor or Translator with Author

Kaltsas, N. 2002. Sculpture in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Translated by D. Hardy. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum.
1 Kaltsas 2002, cat. no. 48.

Droysen, J.G. 1996. Ιστορία του Μεγάλου Αλεξάνδρου. 3rd ed. 2 vols. Translated by R. Apostolides. Athens: Trapeza Pisteos.
1 Droysen 1996, table 5.

Organization or Association as Author

École Française de Rome. 1995. Les Grecs et lOccident: Actes du colloque de la villa Kérylos (24–25 octobre 1991). CÉFR 208. Rome: École Française de Rome.
1 École Française de Rome 1995, 142–51.

Book in a Series (with series in AJA Abbreviations)

Buitron-Oliver, D. 1996. The Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion: Excavations in the Archaic Precinct. SIMA 109. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag.
1 Buitron-Oliver 1996, 55–7.

Book in a series (with series not in AJA Abbreviations)

Bonghi Jovino, M., ed. 2001. Tarquinia: Testimonianze archeologiche e ricostruzione storica. Scavi sistemativi nellabitato. Campagne 1982–1988. Tarchna 1. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider.
1 Bonghi Jovino 2001, 55–98.

Book in more than one edition

Reitz, E.J., and E.S. Wing. 2008. Zooarchaeology. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1 Reitz and Wing 2008.

Gros, P., and M. Torelli. 2007. Storia dellurbanistica: Il mondo romano. Rev. ed. Rome and Bari: Laterza.
1 Gros and Torelli 2007, 25.

Book in more than one volume (citing the work as a whole)

Kiderlen, M. 1995. Megale Oikia: Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung aufwendiger griechischer Stadthausarchitektur. Von der Früharchaik bis ins 3. Jhr. v. Chr. 2 vols. Hürth: Martin Lange.
1 Kiderlen 1995, 1:247.

Book in more than one volume (citing a particular volume)

Caminos, R.A. 1998. Semna-Kumma. Vol. 2, The Temple of Kumma. London: Egypt Exploration Society.
1 Caminos 1998, 100–17.

One volume in two or more books

Evans, A.J. 1928. The Palace of Minos at Knossos. Vol. 2, pt. 2. London: Macmillan.
1 Evans 1928, 131–35.

Book in preparation for publication or in press

Shaw, J.W. Forthcoming. The Palatial Style in Minoan Architecture. Philadelphia: INSTAP Academic Press.
1 Shaw (forthcoming, 148).

Reprint edition

Sontag, S. 2002. Reprint. On Photography. London: Penguin. Original edition, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1977.
1 Sontag 2002, 15.

Sample References to Parts of Books

Chapters or other titled parts of a book

Snodgrass, A. 1990. “Survey Archaeology and the Rural Landscape of the Greek City.” In The Greek City from Homer to Alexander, edited by O. Murray and S. Price, 113–36. Oxford: Oxford University Press and Clarendon Press.
1 Snodgrass 1990, 113–19.

Hägg, R. 1998. “Osteology and Greek Sacrificial Practice.” In Ancient Greek Cult Practice from the Archaeological Evidence, edited by R. Hägg, 49–56. ActaAth 8º, 15. Stockholm: Paul Åströms Förlag.
1 Hägg 1998, fig. 1.

Chapter originally published elsewhere

Markle, M.M. 1999. “La sarisse macédonienne, la lance et l’équipement connexe.” In La guerre en Grèce à lépoque classique, edited by P. Brulé and J. Oulhen, 149–72. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Originally published in AJA 81 (1977) 323–39.
1 Markle 1999, 162–65.

Mendels, D. 1998. “The Polemical Character of Manetho’s Aegyptiaca.” In Identity, Religion, and Historiography: Studies in Hellenistic History, 139–57. Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha Suppl. 24. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic. Originally published in H. Verdin, G. Schepens, and E. De Keyser, eds., Purposes of History: Studies in Greek Historiography from the 4th to the 2nd Centuries B.C. (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1990).
1 Mendels 1998, 144–50.

Preface, foreword, introduction, and similar parts of a book

de Montebello, P. 1988. Foreword to Bronze and Iron: Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, by O.W. Muscarella, 7. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
1 de Montebello 1988.

Alcock, S.E., and J.F. Cherry. 2004. Introduction to Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World, edited by S.E. Alcock and J.F. Cherry, 1–9. Oxford: Oxbow.
1 Alcock and Cherry 2004.

Sample References to Journal Articles

Journal Article (with journal in the AJA Abbreviations)

Piérart, M. 2006. “Travaux de l’École française d’Athénes en 2005: Argos. L’agora.” BCH 130:708–13.
1 Piérart 2006, 710–11.

Journal Article (with journal not in the AJA Abbreviations)

Goren, Y., and I. Segal. 1995. “On Early Myths and Formative Technologies: A Study of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Sculptures and Modeled Skulls from Jericho.” Israel Journal of Chemistry 35:155–65.
1 Goren and Segal 1995, 161.

Journal with no volume number

Pichard, M.P. 1992. “La composition architecture des temples de Pagan.” CRAI:357–74.
1 Pichard 1992, 372–73.

Book Reviews

Papantoniou, G. 2011. Review of La Coroplastie chypriote archaïque: Identités culturelles et politiques à lépoque des royaumes, by S. Fourrier. BABesch 86:226–28.
1 Papantoniou 2011.

Haselberger, L. 2008. “Rediscovering the Architecture of Alexandria.” Review of The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt, c. 300 B.C. to A.D. 700, by J. McKenzie. JRA 21:703–12.
1 Haselberger 2008, 710–11.

Sample References to Unpublished Materials

Theses and Dissertations

Palinkas, J. 2008. “Eleusinian Gateways: Entrances to the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore at Eleusis and the City Eleusinion in Athens.” Ph.D. diss., Emory University.
1 Palinkas 2008, 109–11.

Papers Read at Meetings

Muhly, J.D. 2013. “Eastern Mediterranean Metallurgy in the Final Neolithic/Late Chalcolithic: Crete Enters the International World.” Paper read at the 114th Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, 3–6 January, Seattle.
1 Muhly 2013.

Field Notebooks

Lloyd, S. 1933–1994. “The Abu Temple Excavations.” Unpublished field notebook. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
1 Lloyd 1933–1994.

Sample Reference to Privately Printed Materials

Mommsen, T. 1883. Res gestae divi Augusti ex monumentis Ancyrano et Apolloniensi. Berlin: Privately printed.
1 Mommsen 1883, 25.

Sample References to Auction Catalogues

Christie’s. 2007. Antiquities. Auction catalogue 1846. 8 June 2007, New York.
1 Christie’s 2007, cat. no. 25.

Hôtel Drouot. 1921. Collection Hirsch (première vente): Orfèvrerie, bronzes, pierres, marbres, céramique et verrerie; trouvaille de Sala Consilina; ivories, enluminures, terres cuites. Auction catalogue. 30 June–2 July 1921, Paris.
1 Hôtel Drouot 1921.

Werke ägyptischer Kunst von der Frühzeit bis zur Spätantike. 1974. Auction catalogue 49. Basel: Münzen und Medaillen A.G.
1 Werke ägyptischer Kunst 1974.

Sample References to Maps

Single-Sheet Map

National Geographic Society. 1997. South Asia, with Afghanistan and Myanmar. Map. Scale 1:7,345,000, 1"=116 miles. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
1 National Geographic Society 1997.

Map in a Series

United States Geological Survey. 1999. Southwest Maine. Map. Version 4. Scale 1:40,000. Northeastern Topographic Series V-1. Reston, Va.: U.S. Department of the Interior.
1 United States Geological Survey 1999.

Sample References to Electronic Media

The works cited list entry is given first, followed by the note entry:

Home Page of a Website

Lavan, L., and A. Gering. 2009. Kent-Berlin Ostia Excavations.
1 Lavan and Gering (2009) have recently designed a project to explore this topic.

Secondary Page of a Website

Lavan, L., and A. Gering. 2010, 26 November. “Bones Bring a New Story.” Kent-Berlin Ostia Excavations.
1 Lavan and Gering 2010, 26 November.

Article in an Online Journal

Iverson, P. 2008, 3 September. “Virtual Seminar on Some Unpublished Inscriptions from Corinth IX.” Current Epigraphy.
1 They still remain unpublished, although Iverson (2008, 3 September) offered a virtual seminar on the inscriptions.

Online Article PDF

Morony, M. 2008. “Should Sasanian Iran Be Included in Late Antiquity?” Sasanika.
1 Morony 2008.

Online Graphic

Crane, G. 1990, May. The Perseus Project.
1 The remains of the south wall of the propylon can be seen in Crane (1990, May).

Online Map

United States Geological Survey. 2006. 1 Arc Second scene SRTM_ffB03_p189r032, Filled Finished B. Map. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. College Park, Md.: Global Land Cover Facility, University of Maryland.
1 United States Geological Survey 2006.


Duchêne, H., and S. Girerd. 1998. Delos: A Database of Archaeological Images (U.S. version). Translated by N.K. Rauh, R.F. Townsend, and J.C. Bednar. New York: Educagri Éditions.
1 Duchêne and Girerd (1998, fig. 4278) illustrate a Hellenistic bronze plaque from the Fountain of Minoe depicting Hekate at an altar.