A Systematic Comparison of Material Culture Between Household Floors and Residential Burials in Late Third-Millennium Mesopotamia
A systematic comparison between funerary and house-floor artifacts at the site of Titriş Höyük in southeastern Turkey demonstrates that an overall sense of domesticity and routine was a large part of residential mortuary practice in Mesopotamia in the late third millennium B.C.E. In particular, this comparative analysis reveals that undecorated, everyday dishes were among the most common grave goods in residential burials, suggesting that repetitious, quotidian activities were the primary focus of mortuary symbolism in these tombs. The living do not seem to have incorporated special material culture when they buried their dead. Whether these artifacts were mortuary gifts or remains of funerary feasts, only ordinary items were placed in the tombs as grave goods. This is consistent with the apparent absence of interest in special embellishment of the corpse or the tomb architecture. The observed patterns include the diminished importance of certain aspects of regular life and the minimized expression of individual identities in the mortuary contexts.
The Phokian City of Panopeus/Phanoteus, Three New Rupestral Inscriptions, and the Cippus of the Labyadai of Delphi
Three unpublished rupestral inscriptions from the Phokian town of Panopeus/Phanoteus are presented here. Number 1 is a Late Archaic text concerning the distribution of parts of sacrificial animals as established by the legendary Phanotos (eponym of the town) for his daughter, Boupyga. Of special interest, this text is the original of a copy set up by the Labyadai in ca. 400–350 B.C.E. at Delphi, where it was found during the French excavations before 1895.
The recovery of large quantities of fragmented carbonized olive stones from archaeological sites around the Mediterranean indicates that olive oil pressing waste (pomace) was used as a domestic and industrial fuel source throughout antiquity. Olive pomace burns at a high and constant temperature, making it an ideal fuel for heating and cooking as well as firing pottery and lime kilns. The Roman period is characterized by an expansion in pomace use both quantitatively and geographically.
New Archaeological Research in the Northwest Quarter of Jerash and Its Implications for the Urban Development of Roman Gerasa
The nature and extent of the urban development of Roman Gerasa (modern Jerash) has for decades been a topic of discussion among scholars studying settlement patterns as well as public and private life in the Roman empire. Research has, however, mostly focused on the development of the city along its main street. The aim of a new archaeological project, which was initiated in 2011, is to investigate the settlement history of the Northwest Quarter of Jerash through all periods.
Includes Open Access Supplementary Content
This work examines the use of memory and tradition in the Christianization of the Peloponnese based on the evidence of the location and topography of churches. The different processes of conversion in the area have already been discussed, and the focus of this work is to show the extent of continuation of religious practice from the Roman to Late Antique periods. A diachronic analysis of the evidence for towns and sanctuaries from the fourth to seventh centuries is presented.
Ritual and Identity in Rural Mesopotamia: Hirbemerdon Tepe and the Upper Tigris River Valley in the Middle Bronze Age
Excavations at the relatively small but strategically placed site of Hirbemerdon Tepe, located along the west bank of the upper Tigris River in modern southeastern Turkey, have yielded significant results. During the Middle Bronze Age (2000–1600 B.C.E.), the site was situated in an ecologically stratified landscape that included river terraces suitable for agriculture as well as forested uplands ideal for pastoral and hunting activities.
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A stark division is usually drawn between Late Roman and Early Medieval burials in Britain. This has allowed works of synthesis to create opposing data sets of osteological information. A close understanding of the period 300–600 C.E. suggests that some graves currently assigned to the Late Roman period may actually date to the fifth or sixth century C.E. Two recent case studies demonstrate this point, and radiocarbon dating is advocated as a partial solution.